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LiFePO4 Nanoparticles Embedded in Nanoporous Carbon Matrix1

LiFePO4 Nanoparticles Embedded in Nanoporous CarbonMatrix
Researchers of the CAS Key Laboratory ofMolecular Nanostructure and Nanotechnology successfully designedand synthesized a nanocomposite of LiFePO4 nanoparticles embeddedin nanoporous carbon matrix (LFP-NP@NPCM) as a superior cathodematerial for LIBs. The finding has been published in the recentissue of Adv. Mater. (2009, 21, 2710−2714).Amongst all thecommercially available power sources, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs)currently represent the state-of-the-art technology in high energybatteries, and has occupied a prime position in the market place topower portable electronic devices such as, laptops, personaldigital assistants, and cellular phones.However, for the use aspower supplies of electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electricvehicles (HEVs), it is still a challenge for LIBs to achievelong-term cycling life and high power density in whichsupercapacitors currently address the extremes.Compared with thecommercial LiCoO2, olivine-structural LiFePO4 has attractedextensive interest as a potential cathode material for LIBs becauseof its numerous appealing features such as high theoreticalcapacity (170 mA h g−1), high safety, environmental benignity, andlow cost.One of the challenging issues in using it for high powerLIBs is to tackle its sluggish mass and charge transport.In thepresent LFP-NP@NPCM,nanometer-sized LiFePO4 particles uniformly embed in the nanoporouscarbon matrix, which own the following virtues: i) Nanometer-sizedLiFePO4 particles could decrease the Li diffusion distance andtime, resulting in much improved power capability; ii) The pores inthe porous carbon matrix serve as electrolyte-containers for highrate charge/discharge process; iii) The carbon matrix enhances theelectronic conductivity of nanocomposite; iv) The carbon matrixstabilizes the nanoscaled LiFePO4, and then improves the cyclingperformance.Therefore, the LFP-NP@NPCM electrode can be fully chargedor discharged within a period of about 16 seconds, similar to asuper capacitor, but with more energy density. Another excellentproperty of the LFP-NP@NPCMnanocomposite is the superior cycling performance. The dischargecapacity loss is less than 3% over 700 cycles at a rate of 1.5C(Fig. 2b).The research is financially supported by the ChineseAcademy of Sciences, Ministry of Science and Technology of thePeople's Republic of China and China's National Natural ScienceFoundation.
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